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English Church Architecture -

Appendix 2:  Some Dated Building Features to 1534.

Arch Forms; Vaults; Window Traceries; Towers; Mouldings; Pier Cross-sections; Capitals; Roofs; Miscellaneous Features; Materials.

Feature. Church. Where found. Date.
       
ARCH FORMS      
Early use of the pointed arch Ripon Cathedral, Harrogate, North Yorkshire Transept arcades before 1181?
Intersecting round arches in blank arcades Castle Rising, King's Lynn & West Norfolk W. front after 1138
Segmental-pointed
Parham, Suffolk Coastal Nave & W. tower c. 1380
  Wingfield, Mid Suffolk Nave c. 1380
  Brundish, Mid Suffolk Nave & chancel c. 1385
  Stowlangtoft, Mid Suffolk Entire church c. 1390
  Orwell, South Cambridgeshire Chancel windows c. 1396
       
VAULTS      
Octopartite beneath tower,  with central hole for bell-ropes Kirby Hill,  North Yorkshire W. tower 1397
Tierceron Boxford, Babergh, Suffolk Niches over S. porch doorway 1441-69
  Southwold, Suffolk Coastal S. porch 1488-93
  Nayland, Babergh, Suffolk Southwest porch 1525
Stellar Saffron Walden, Uttlesford, Essex N. porch after 1485
Lierne Bolton Percy, Selby, N. Yorkshire Sedilia before 1424
  Woolpit, Mid Suffolk Niches over S. porch doorway 1430-52
  Felsham, Mid Suffolk Niche over N. porch doorway 1470
Fan Burwell, East Cambridgeshire N. porch 1461
  Lavenham, Babergh, Suffolk S. porch after 1485
  Saffron Walden, Uttlesford, Essex S. porch after 1485
  Crewkerne, South Somerset S. porch before 1490
       
WINDOW TRACERIES      
Reticulated tracery Isleham, East Cambridgeshire Chancel 1331
Reticulated tracery with octfoil units Fenstanton, Huntingdonshire, Cambs. Chancel 1345-52
Straightened reticulation units Hatfield Broad Oak, Uttlesford, Essex Chancel E. window 1378
  Sudbury (St. Gregory), Babergh, Suffolk S. porch & porch chapel before 1381
  Houghton Conquest, Bedfordshire Central W. tower bell-openings 1392
  Castle Acre, King's Lynn & West Norfolk W. tower bell-openings 1396
  Canewdon, Essex W. tower third stage 1413-22
Lights linked by little subarcuations
Parham, Suffolk Coastal Nave & W. tower c. 1380
  Wingfield, Mid Suffolk Nave c. 1380
  Brundish, Mid Suffolk Nave & chancel c. 1385
  Stowlangtoft, Mid Suffolk Entire church c. 1390
Supermullions & supertransoms forming a grill Cavendish, St. Edmundsbury, Suffolk Chancel S. wall 1381
Supermullioned tracery with strong mullions Fincham, St. Martin Aisles and chancel 1458-76
Strong mullions and a quatrefoil in the central oculus Orwell, South Cambridgeshire Chancel windows c. 1396
  Helmingham, Mid Suffolk W. tower W. window 1480
  Henley, Mid Suffolk W. tower W. window before 1505
Cinquefoil-cusped sublights Yeovil, South Somerset Throughout 1380
  Southwold, Suffolk Coastal Throughout, except clerestory 1399-1413
Split "Y"s Southwold, Suffolk Coastal Throughout 1399-1413
  Balsham, South Cambridgeshire Nave aisles before 1401
  Bury St. Edmunds (St. Mary), St.Edms., Suffolk Clerestory 1424-33
  Elmswell, Mid Suffolk W. tower bell-openings 1476
  Saffron Walden, Uttlesford, Essex Nave aisles after 1485
  Helmingham, Mid Suffolk W. tower W. window 1488
  Dedham, Colchester, Essex Aisles & chancel after 1492
Supertransoms unsupported by archlets below Balsham, South Cambridgeshire Nave aisles before 1401
Stepped supertransoms Southwold, Suffolk Coastal Chancel 1399-1413
  Wingfield, Mid Suffolk Nave clerestory & tower W. window c. 1415
  Stoke-by-Nayland, Babergh, Suffolk W. tower 1439-62
  Great Barton, St. Edmundsbury, Suffolk W. tower bell-openings 1440-49
  Fincham, St. Martin Aisles and chancel 1458-76
  Helmingham, Mid Suffolk W. tower W. window 1480
Cruciform lobing set diagonally Burwell, East Cambridgeshire Nave aisles 1461
  Cavendish, St. Edmundsbury, Suffolk Nave aisles 1471
  Long Melford, Babergh, Suffolk Chancel chapel aisles 1484
Intersecting subarcuation Lavenham, Babergh, Suffolk S. porch after 1485
Latticed transoms or supertransoms Southwold, Suffolk Coastal Nave aisles 1399-1413
  Bury St. Edmunds (St. Mary), St. Edms., Suffolk Nave aisles 1424-33
  Crewkerne, South Somerset Transepts before 1490
  Dedham, Colchester, Essex Chancel after 1492
  Long Sutton, South Somerset W. tower before 1493
Subreticulation Yeovil, South Somerset Throughout 1380
  North Cadbury, South Somerset E. window c. 1423
  Crewkerne, South Somerset Chancel & chapels before 1490
  Long Sutton, South Somerset S. aisle & chancel before 1493
  Selworthy, West Somerset Aisle windows 1538
Outer lights with inverted daggers below subarcuation Lavenham, Babergh, Suffolk W. tower 3rd-stage windows after 1485
  Dedham, Colchester, Essex W. tower bell-openings after 1492
Through reticulation Southwold, Suffolk Coastal W. tower W. window 1399-1413
  Lavenham, Babergh, Suffolk W. tower W. window after 1485
  Long Sutton, South Somerset S. front before 1493
  Bruton, South Somerset Clerestory 1506-22
  Selworthy, West Somerset Aisle windows 1538
       
TOWERS      
Diagonal buttresses Kirby Hill, North Yorkshire W. tower 1397
  Fincham, St. Martin Aisles and chancel 1458-76
Set-back buttresses applied to clasping buttresses Lavenham, Babergh, Suffolk W. tower after 1485
Polygonal clasping buttresses producing turreted form Stoke-by-Nayland, Babergh, Suffolk W. tower 1439-62
  Saffron Walden, Uttlesford, Essex W. tower after 1485
  Dedham, Colchester, Essex W. tower after 1492
Semi-polygonal stair turret rising to same height Kirby Hill, North Yorkshire W. tower 1397
       
MOULDINGS      
Billet Lastingham, Ryedale, N. Yorkshire String course around apse 1078-88
Cable Castle Rising, King's Lynn & West Norfolk W. front & central tower arch after 1138
Three-dimensional chevron Castle Rising, King's Lynn & West Norfolk W. front after 1138
Sunk quadrant Ashwell, N. Hertfordshire 3 central bays of nave arcades 1345-52
  Fenstanton, Huntingdonshire, Cambs. Chancel arch 1345-52
  Hempstead, Uttlesford, Essex Nave arcades 1365
  Sudbury (St. Gregory), Babergh, Suffolk Nave arcades before 1381
  Houghton Conquest, Bedfordshire Central W. tower doorway 1392
  Castle Acre, King's Lynn & West Norfolk Tower arch 1396
  Balsham, South Cambridgeshire Nave arcades before 1401
  North Cadbury, South Somerset Nave arcades c. 1423
  Bures, Babergh, Suffolk S. chapel arcade 1514
Wave Houghton Conquest, Bedfordshire Central W. tower doorway 1392
  Castle Acre, King's Lynn & West Norfolk Tower arch 1396
  Southwold, Suffolk Coastal Nave arcades 1399-1413
  Mildenhall, Forest Heath, Suffolk Nave arcades 1413-22
  Woolpit, Mid Suffolk S. porch doorway 1430-52
  Stoke-by-Nayland, Babergh, Suffolk Tower arch 1439-62
  Fincham, St. Martin Aisles and chancel 1458-76
  Long Sutton, South Somerset Nave arcades before 1493
  Selworthy, West Somerset Nave arcades 1538
PIER CROSS-SECTIONS      
Quatrefoil Hempstead, Uttlesford, Essex Nave arcades 1365
Quatrefoil, with narrow secondary shafts in the angles Isleham, East Cambridgeshire Nave arcades 1331
  Ashwell, N. Hertfordshire 3 central bays of nave arcades 1345-52
Semicircular shafts attached to chamfered wall pieces Sudbury (St. Gregory), Babergh, Suffolk Nave arcades before 1381
Four shafts separated by spurs or narrow hollows Southwold, Suffolk Coastal Nave arcades 1399-1413
    (as distinct from below) Balsham, South Cambridgeshire Nave arcades before 1401
  Hengrave, St. Edmundsbury, Suffolk Nave arcades before 1419
  Long Sutton, South Somerset Nave arcades before 1493
Four shafts separated by casements Dedham, Colchester, Essex Nave arcades after 1492
Bowtells separated by casements, 1 from 3 Bury St. Edmunds (St. Mary), St. Edms., Suffolk Nave arcades 1424-33
  Burwell, East Cambridgeshire Nave arcades 1461
  Cavendish, St. Edmundsbury, Suffolk Nave arcades 1471
  Long Melford, Babergh, Suffolk Lady chapel arcades 1496
  Lavenham, Babergh, Suffolk S. chapel arcade after 1520
       
CAPITALS      
Leaf volute Lastingham, Ryedale, N. Yorkshire Apse & crypt 1078-88
       
ROOFS      
Collar beam with scissor-bracing above Coggeshall (St. Nicholas), Braintree, Essex Single-cell building 1218-23
Collar beam, arched to the collars on principal couples Gosfield, Braintree, Essex Nave before 1440
Low pitched arched-brace construction Burwell, East Cambridgeshire Nave 1461
  Saffron Walden, Uttlesford, Essex Nave before 1525
Single hammerbeams Mildenhall, Forest Heath, Suffolk Nave aisles 1413-22
  Fincham, St. Martin Aisles and chancel 1458-76
Single hammerbeams alternating with tie beams Isleham, East Cambridgeshire Nave 1495
Single hammerbeams alternating with braced collars Bury St. Edmunds (St. Mary), St. Edms., Suffolk Nave 1444-5
Double hammerbeams alternating with braced collars Cotton, Mid Suffolk Nave 1471
       
MISCELLANEOUS FEATURES      
Wheel window of mouchettes in Perpendicular work Burwell, East Cambridgeshire Nave, above chancel arch 1461
Blank carving above arcades Burwell, East Cambridgeshire Nave 1461
  Lavenham, Babergh, Suffolk Nave after 1485
  Saffron Walden, Uttlesford, Essex Nave after 1485
Stepped battlements Stoke-by-Nayland, Babergh, Suffolk W. tower 1439-62
  Great Barton, St. Edmundsbury, Suffolk W. tower 1440-49
  Rougham, St. Edmundsbury, Suffolk W. tower 1460-72
  Elmswell, Mid Suffolk W. tower 1476
  Gestingthorpe, Braintree, Essex W. tower 1498
Openwork parapets Woolpit, Mid Suffolk S. porch 1430-52
  Lavenham, Babergh, Suffolk Nave, aisles & S. porch after 1485
  Hessett, Mid Suffolk Entire church before 1492
  Bruton, South Somerset Aisles & clerestory 1506-22
       
MATERIALS      
Pre-fifteenth century use of brick Polstead, Babergh, Suffolk Nave arcades before 1200
  Coggeshall (St. Nicholas), Braintree, Essex Quoins & dressings 1218-23