English Church Architecture.
TORQUAY, St. John (SX 919 637),
(Bedrock: Middle & Upper Devonian, Torquay Limestone Formation.)
An important town church by George Edmund Street (1824-81),
heavily influenced by Street's foreign travel.
This is another of Street's town churches erected in a tightly constricted position - in this case, on a site cut out of the hillside behind and above one of the main streets facing the seafront in Torquay. The building in consequence has no churchyard, no N. windows, and very little space between the east end of the chancel and neighbouring St. John's House, thereby delegating all the responsibility for its visual impact on the S. front and southwest tower (seen left, from the southeast, and below, up an alleyway from the south). The tower rises in three stages and is topped by a helm roof, like those Street observed in Switzerland. on his way to Italy in 1853 and subsequently described in Brick and Marble. Its striking appearance ensures it stands out above the close-packed houses and shops below and perhaps excuses its alien appearance in this Victorian seaside town.
St. John's was built in 1861-73 and comprises an aisled nave and chancel with a tower at the W. end of the S. aisle, that also serves as a porch. A modest amount of structural colour can be seen outside in the contrast between the golden Ham Hill dressings around the windows and doors and the grey stone comprising the majority of the main walling, which is the very stone hacked out of the hill round the back. Windows show Street's usual privileging of First Pointed lancet forms: the aisle windows consist of pairs of lancets set in encompassing arches, with encircled quatrefoils in circles above; the clerestory windows are formed of groups of four stepped lancets; the nave W. window is five-light with outer lancet lights subarcuated above encircled sexfoils and with an octfoil in the head; and the chancel E. window is similar except that the outer lights are subarcuated over quatrefoils and the wheel in the apex is formed of eight lobes set round a circle. It is all fairly imposing in its rather grim way but it does little to prepare the visitor for the rich display within.
This is particularly evident in the lavish use of materials. The aisle walls and the nave walls above the arcades are faced with irregular pieces of stone in varying shades of brown and grey, given a 'crazy paving' effect by thick bands of mortar between. (See he general interior view from the west, below left, and the view along the S. aisle, below right.) The four-bay aisle arcades are composed of arches of three orders bearing two flat chamfers separated by a roll, springing from piers formed of clusters of eight shafts constructed of grey marble with black bands. The positions in the N. aisle wall corresponding to the S. aisle windows, are filled with mosaics illustrating the life of St. John, commissioned by Street from the studio of Antonio Salviati of Murano, Venice (anon, Parish Church of St. John the Apostle, Torquay, undated, p. 7), to provide an exceptionally literal Italianate element to the building, even by Street's standards. The clerestory windows are separated by black marble shafts in shaft-rings and the nave roof (seen at the foot of the page, on the left) takes the form of a wooden barrel vault divided into rectangles by bands inset with black pointed quatrefoils.
The chancel arch is supported on tall marble corbel shafts with figure carving on the corbels and leaves deeply cut in the capitals, while the arch itself carries a series of hollows of which the outer one is continuous down the jambs. A two-light central window above the arch and a single light on each side (seen above left), look through into the space above the chancel vault. The two-bay arcades between the chancel and chapels are composed of double-flat-chamfered arches with stones of alternating colours forming the outer order, and a hood-mould with dog-tooth moulding, supported on central piers composed of eight marble shafts. (The photograph below left shows the S. chapel arcade.) The chancel vault consists of a sexpartite bay over the choir and a quadripartite vault over the shallower sanctuary (as illustrated below right). However, here again it is the constructional colour that is especially telling, with the golden Ham Hill stone from Somerset now contrasted with darker Caen stone from France (Parish Church of St. John the Apostle, p. 6), an example of Street's preparedness to bring building stone from anywhere in Europe if it suited his purpose, as he was happy to confess in Brick and Marble (pp. 283-284):
'It must never be forgotten by us that our forefathers had very limited means of obtaining materials from one locality and transporting them to another; and were moreover, to a great extent, unacquainted with the materials which might, if necessary, be obtained. We have not this excuse: we not only know what materials we may obtain, but we have at the same time marvellous facilities for their conveyance between all parts of the country, and we also know how much has been done of old in other countries by using them in the proper way.'
The chancel clerestory is formed of two pairs of windows, each composed of two lancets with a cinquefoil above. Seating around the sanctuary walls is not confined to the three-bay sedilia with trefoil-cusped arches supported on marble columns to the south, for there is an identical arrangement to the north and thereafter, shallow blank arches of similar size return along the E. wall to butt up against the reredos. This has a cinquefoil-cusped central section depicting Christ on the Cross, with an unbiblical group of six figures looking on, including, besides SS. Mary, John and Mary Magdalene, Mary the wife of Clopas, Salome and Joseph of Arimathaea. The scene is placed between sections of decorative panelling featuring pinched quatrefoils above blank arcading. The E. window above has three orders of marble shafts at the sides.
Furnishings in the church include the octagonal font in coloured marbles, with blank arches beneath a zigzag moulding and tiny inlaid patterns above, standing on a marble octagonal base. (See the photograph below right.) The pulpit is a comparatively simple affair for Street, consisting of a drum with inlaid marble patterns on the west and northwest faces only, standing on a wide stone base with marble shafts inset in the angles. A fine and particularly elaborate iron parclose screen (seen in the photograph above left), also designed by Street, fills the arches between the chancel and S. chapel, with each of its two sections being made up of three divisions. There is a low brass screen between the nave and chancel which suddenly steps up to form an arch over the centre and to support a brass cross.
[Other churches by Street featured on this web-site are Fimber and Wansford in the East Riding of Yorkshire, Toddington in Gloucestershire, East Heslerton, Helperthorpe, Howsham, Robin Hood's Bay, Thixendale, West Lutton and Whitwell-on-the-Hill in North Yorkshire, Denstone in Staffordshire, Brightwalton and Eastbury in West Berkshire, and St. Mary Magdalene's Rowington Close and St. James's Thorndike Street in the City of Westminster.]